(Image source: http://medshadow.org/medshadow_blog/vaccine-risks-vs-benefits/)

Any vaccine can cause side-effects. For the most part, these are slight (for example, a low-grade fever or a sore arm) and go away within a couple of days. Listed below are vaccines licensed in the U.S and side effects that have been linked with each of them. This information is copied from CDC’s Vaccine Information Statements, which in turn are obtained from the ACIP (Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices)  recommendations for each vaccine.

Remember, immunizations are continually monitored for safety, and like any medicine, vaccines can cause side effects. However, a resolution not to immunize a child also includes risk and could put the kid and others who come into contact with her or him at risk of contracting a potentially fatal disease.

Adenovirus Vaccine

What is adenovirus?

Adenoviruses are very prevalent and come in many types. Depending on the type of the virus, adenoviruses can cause:

  • Breathing (respiratory) problems that can include fever, cough, and runny nose
  • A headache
  • Eye infections
  • Sore throat

These symptoms can last up to ten days.

Infections with adenovirus can rarely lead to more serious problems, such as stomach and bowel problems, pneumonia, and even death. Some people who are infected might have to need hospital treatment.

Adenovirus infections can be spread from a person to person through the air (for instance, by coughing or sneezing). It can also be spread by personal contact, like touching an infected person or touching objects that an infected person has previously affected.

Two types of adenovirus (Type 7 and Type 4) have caused severe outbreaks of respiratory disease among military recruits.

What are the benefits of Adenovirus vaccine?

Adenovirus immunization contains live adenovirus Type 7 and Type 4. It will  prevent most disease caused by these two virus types.

Adenovirus immunization comes as two tables, take by mouth (orally) at the same time. The tablets have to be swallowed whole, not crushed or chewed.

Adenovirus immunization can be given at the same time as other shots.

Who should get adenovirus vaccine?

The immunization is approved for military personnel from 17 through 50 years of age. It is suggested by the Department od Defense (DoD) for military recruits entering basic training. It might also be suggested for other military personnel at high endanger for adenovirus infection.

What are the side-effects from Adenovirus vaccine?

A vaccine, like any medication, could cause a severe reaction. But the risk of a shot causing serious harm, or death, is minuscule.

Mild Problems
Few mild problems have been reported within two weeks of getting the shot:

  • Headaches, upper respiratory tract infection (about one person in 3)
  • A sore throat, stuffy nose, joint pain (about one person in 6)
  • Abdominal pain, cough, nausea (about one person in 7)
  • Diarrhea (about one person in 10)
  • Fever (about one person in 100)

Severe Problems

More severe problems have been reported by about one person in 100, within six months of vaccination. These problems included:

  • Pneumonia
  • Inflammation of the stomach or intestines
  • Blood in the urine or stool

It is not sure whether these mild or severe problems were caused by the shot or occurred after immunization by chance.

As with all vaccines, adenovirus shot will continue to be monitored for unexpected or serious problems.

Note: Adenovirus shot is approved for use only among the military force.

This information is based on the Adenovirus VIS.

Anthrax Vaccine

What is anthrax?

Anthrax is a serious illness that can affect both humans and animals. Bacteria called Bacillus anthracis causes it. People can get anthrax from touch with infected animals, meat, wool, or hides.

Cutaneous anthrax. In its most frequent form, anthrax is a skin illness that causes skin ulcers and typically fatigue and fever. Up to 20% of these cases are deadly if not treated.

Gastrointestinal anthrax. This form of anthrax can be the outcome from eating raw or uncooked infected meat. Symptoms can include fever, vomiting, nausea, sore throat, swollen lymph glands, and abdominal pain and swelling. Gastrointestinal anthrax can result in blood poisoning, shock, and even death.

Inhalation anthrax. This form of anthrax happens when Bacillus anthracis is inhaled and is very severe. The first symptoms can include a mild fever, a sore throat, and muscle aches. Within a couple of days, these symptoms are followed by severe respiratory problems, shock, and meningitis (spinal cord covering and inflammation of the brain). This form of anthrax needs hospitalization and aggressive treatment with drugs. It is often fatal.

What are the benefits of Anthrax vaccine?

Anthrax shot protects against anthrax illness. The vaccine used in the U.S. does not contain Bacillus anthracis cells, and it does not cause anthrax. This vaccine was licensed in 1970.

Based on few but sound evidence, the shot protects against both inhalation and cutaneous (skin) anthrax.

What are the side-effects from anthrax vaccine?

Like any medication, a vaccine could cause a serious problem, like a severe allergic reaction.

Anthrax is a severe disease, and the risk of critical harm from the vaccine is minuscule.

Mild Problems

  • Reactions on the arm where the vaccine was given:
  • Tenderness (about one person out of 2)
  • Redness (about one out of 7 men and one out of 3 women)
  • Itching (about one out of 50 men and one out of 20 women)
  • Lump (about one out of 60 men and one out of 16 women)
  • Bruise (about one out of 25 men and one out of 22 women)

Muscle aches or short-term limitation of arm movement (about one out of 14 men and one out of 10 women)

Headaches (about one out of 25 men and one out of 12 women)

Fatigue (about one out of 15 men, about one out of 8 women)

Severe Problems

  • Severe allergic reaction (very rare – less than one in 100,000 doses).

As with any shot, other severe problems have been reported. But these do not appear to occur any more often among anthrax shot recipients than among unvaccinated people.

There are no facts that anthrax vaccine causes long-term health complications.

Independent civilian committees have not found anthrax immunization to be a factor in unexplained diseases among Gulf War veterans.

This information is found on the Anthrax VIS.

DTaP Vaccine

(Diphtheria, Tetanus, and acellular Pertussis)

What are the benefits of DTaP vaccine?

Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis are severe diseases caused by bacteria.

Pertussis and Diphtheria are spread from a person to person. Tetanus enters the body through wounds and cuts.

DIPHTHERIA causes a thick covering on the back of the throat.

  • It can result in respiratory problems, paralysis, heart failure, or even death.

TETANUS (Lockjaw) causes painful tauten of the muscles, typically all over the body.

  • It can result in “locking” of the jaw so the victim can not open his mouth or swallow. Tetanus results in death in up to two out of ten cases.

PERTUSSIS (Whooping Cough) causes coughing streaks so bad that it is hard for babies to eat, drink, or breathe. These streaks can last for weeks.

  • It can result in pneumonia, seizures (jerking and staring streaks), brain damage, or death.

DTaP (Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis) vaccine can help prevent these diseases. Most kids who are immunized with DTaP will be protected throughout childhood. Many more kids would catch these diseases if stopped vaccinating.

DTaP is a safer form of an older vaccine called DTP. The previous version is no longer used in the U.S.

What are the side-effects from DTaP vaccine?

Getting diphtheria, tetanus or acellular pertussis disease is much riskier than getting the DTaP vaccine.

However, a vaccine, like any medication, is capable of causing serious problems, like severe allergic reactions. The risk of DTaP shot causing serious harm or death, is minuscule.

Mild Problems (Common)

  • Fever (up to about one child in 4)
  • Redness or swelling where the vaccine was given (up to about one child in 4)
  • Soreness or tenderness where the vaccine was given (up to about one child in 4)

These problems occur more frequent after the 4th and 5th doses of DTaP series than after earlier shots.

Sometimes the 4th or 5th dose of the DTaP vaccine is followed by swelling of the whole arm or leg in which the vaccine was given, for 1 to 7 days (up to about one child in 30).

Other mild problems include:

  • Tiredness or poor appetite (up to about one child in 10)
  • Fussiness (up to about one child in 3)
  • Vomiting (up to about one child in 50)

These problems usually occur 1 to 3 days after the shot.

Moderate Problems (Uncommon)

  • Non-stop crying, for 3 hours or even more (up to about one child out of 1,000)
  • Seizure (staring or jerking) (about one child out of 14,000)
  • High fever, 105 degrees Fahrenheit or higher (about one child out of 16,000)

Severe Problems (Very Rare)

Severe allergic reaction (less than one out of a million doses) Several other serious problems have been reported after DTaP vaccine. This include:

  • Permanent brain damage.
  • Long-term seizures, coma, or lowered consciousness

These are so very rare it is hard to determine if the vaccine causes them.

Controlling fever is especially important for kids who have had seizures, for any cause. It is also important if any other family member has had seizures.

You can decrease fever and pain by giving your kid an aspirin-free pain reliever when the vaccine is given, and for the next 24 hours, obeying the package instructions.

This information is found on the DTaP VIS.

Hepatitis A Vaccine

What is Hepatitis A?

Hepatitis A is a severe liver disease caused by the HAV (Hepatitis A Virus). HAV is found in the stool of persons with hepatitis A.

Close personal contact usually spreads it and sometimes by drinking water or eating food containing HAV. An individual who has hepatitis A can easily pass the illness to others within the same occupants.

Hepatitis A can cause:

  • Jaundice (yellow skin or eyes, dark urine)
  • “flu-like” illness
  • Severe stomach pains and diarrhea (kids)

People with hepatitis A often need to be hospitalized (up to about one person in 5).

Adults with hepatitis A are frequently too ill to work for up to a month or even more.

Sometimes, humans die as a result of hepatitis A (around 3-6 deaths per 1,000 cases).

Hepatitis A shot can prevent hepatitis A.

What are the side-effects from hepatitis A vaccine?

A vaccine, like any medication, could cause severe problems, like a serious allergic reaction. The risk of hepatitis A vaccine causing severe harm, or death, is minuscule.

Getting hepatitis A shot is much safer than catching the disease.

Mild Problems

  • Soreness where the vaccine was given (about one out of two adults, and up to one out of 6 children)
  • A headache (about one out of 6 adults and one out of 25 children)
  • Loss of appetite (about one out of 12 children)
  • Tiredness (about one out of 14 adults)

If these problems happen, they usually last one or two days.

Severe Problems

  • Severe allergic reaction, within a couple of minutes to a couple of hours after the shot was given (very rare)

This information is found on the Hepatitis A VIS.

Hepatitis B Vaccine

What are the benefits of Hepatitis B vaccine?

Hepatitis B shot can prevent hepatitis B, and the severe consequences of hepatitis B infection, including cirrhosis and liver cancer.

Hepatitis B shot may be given by itself or in the same vaccine with other vaccines.

Routine hepatitis B immunization was recommended for some United States adults and children beginning in 1982, and for all kids in 1991. Since 1990, new hepatitis B infections among kids and teenagers have dropped by more than 95% – and by 70% in other age groups.

Immunization gives long-term protection from hepatitis B infection, if not lifelong.

What are the side-effects from hepatitis B vaccine?

The hepatitis B vaccine is very safe. Most people do not have any problems.

The vaccine contains non-infectious material, and can not cause hepatitis B infection.

However, some mild problems have been reported

  • Temperature of 99.9 Fahrenheit degrees or higher (up to about one person in 15)
  • Soreness where the vaccine was given (up to about one person in 4)

Severe problems are extremely rare. Serious allergic reactions are believed to happen once in 1.1 million doses.

A vaccine, like any medication, could cause a severe reaction. But the risk of a shot causing serious harm, or death, is minuscule. More than 100 million people in the U.S have been immunized with hepatitis B vaccine.

This information is found on the Hepatitis B VIS.

Hib Vaccine

What are the benefits of Hib vaccine?

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) illness is a serious disease caused by bacteria. It typically affects kids under five years old. It can also affect grown-ups with certain medical conditions.

Your kid can get Hib illness by being around other children or grown-ups who may have the bacteria without knowing it. The germs spread from a person to person. If the germs stay in the kids’ throat and nose, the child will likely not get sick. But sometimes the germs expand into the lungs or the bloodstream, and then the Hib can cause severe problems. This is called invasive Hib disease.

Before Hib shot, Hib illness was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis among kids under five years old in the U.S. meningitis is an infection of the covering of the brain and spinal cord. It can result in brain damage and deafness. Hib illness can also cause:

  • Severe swelling in the throat, making it difficult to breathe
  • Pneumonia
  • Infections of the blood, bones, joints, and covering of the heart
  • Death

Before Hib shot, about 20.000 children in the U.S. under five years old got Hib illness each year, and about 3%-6% of them died.

Hib shot can prevent Hib illness. Since the use of Hib immunization began, the number of cases of invasive Hib illness has decreased by more than 99%. Many more kids would get Hib disease if stopped vaccinating.

What are the side-effects from Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine?

With any medication, including vaccines, there is a possibility of side-effects. These are typically mild and go away on their own. Severe reactions are also possible but are very rare.

Most people who get Hib shot do not have any problems.

Mild Problems following Hib vaccine:

  • Fever
  • Warmth, redness, or swelling where the shot was given

These problems are uncommon. If they happen, they usually begin very soon after the shot was given and last for 2 or 3 days.

Problems that could occur after any vaccine:

Any medicine can cause a serious allergic reaction. Such reactions from a shot are very rare, estimated at less than one a million doses, and would occur within a couple of minutes to a couple of hours after the shot.

As with any medication, there is a very remote chance of a shot causing serious harm or death.

Older children, teenagers, and adults might also undergo these problems after any shot:

  • People sometimes faint after a medical procedure, including immunization. Laying down or sitting for about 15 minutes can help avert fainting, and injuries caused by a fall. Do tell your doctor if you feel dizzy, or have ringing in the ears or vision changes.
  • Some people get pain in the shoulder and have strain moving the arm where the shot was given. It happens very rarely, though.

This information is found on the Hib VIS.

HPV-Cervarix Vaccine

(Human Papillomavirus Cervarix shot)

what are the benefits of HPV-Cervarix vaccine?

HPV vaccine is important because it can fend off most cases of cervical cancer in females if it’s given before an individual is exposed to the virus.

Protection from HPV shot is expected to be long-lasting. But Immunization is not a substitute for cervical cancer screening. Females should still get regular Pap tests.

The shot you are getting is one of two HPV shots that can be given to fend off cervical cancer. It is given to women only.

The other shot may be given to both females and males. It can also fend off most genital warts. It has also been shown to ward off some vaginal, vulvar and anal cancers.

What are the side-effects from HPV-Cervarix vaccine?

The HPV Cervarix shot has been in use around the world for a couple of years and has been very safe.

Nevertheless, any medication could cause a serious problem, like a severe allergic reaction. The risk of any shot causing serious harm, or death, is minuscule.

Life-threatening allergic reactions from vaccines are extremely rare. If they do happen, it would be within a couple of minutes to a couple of hours after the shot.

Few mild to moderate problems are known to happen with this HPV vaccine. They do not last long and vanish on their own.

  • Reactions where the vaccine was given
  • Pain (around nine people in 10)
  • Redness or swelling (around one person in 2)
  • Other mild reactions
  • Fever of 99.5 Fahrenheit degrees or higher (about one person in 8)
  • A headache or fatigue (about one person in 2)
  • Vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, or abdominal pain (about one person in 4)
  • Join or muscle pain (up to one person in 2)
  • Fainting

Brief fainting spells and related symptoms (like jerking movements) can occur after any medical procedure, including immunization. Lying down or sitting for about 15 minutes after a shot can help avert fainting and injuries caused by falls. Do tell your doctor if the patient feels light-headed or dizzy, or has ringing in the ears or vision changes.

Like all immunizations, HPV vaccines will continue to be monitored for severe or unusual problems.

This information is found on the HPV-Cervarix VIS.

HPV-Gardasil-9 Vaccine

(Human Papillomavirus Gardasil-9 shot)

what are the benefits of HPV-Gardasil-9 vaccine?

Gardasil-9 prevents HPV (human papillomavirus) types that cause many cancers, including:

  • Vaginal and vulvar cancers in females,
  • Cervical cancer in females,
  • Throat cancer in females and males,
  • Anal cancer in males and females, and
  • Penile cancer in males.

Gardasil-9 prevents HPV types that lead to genital warts in both males and females.

In the United States, about 12,000 women get cervical cancer each year, and around 4,000 women die from it. Gardasil-9 can fend off most of these cases of cervical cancer.

Immunization is not a substitute for cervical cancer screening. Gardasil-9 vaccine does not protect against all HPV kinds that can cause cervical cancer. Females should still get regular Pap tests.

HPV infection typically comes from sexual intercourse and most people will become infected at some stage in their life. About 14 million American, including teenagers, get infected every year. Most infections will vanish and not cause serious problems. But thousands of men and women get cancer and diseases from HPV.

What are the side-effects from HPV-Gardasil-9 vaccine?

With any medication, including vaccines, there is a chance of side-effects. These are typically mild and go away on their own, but severe reactions are possible too.

Most people who get HPV shot do not have any problems.

Mild or moderate problems following HPV-Gardasil-9:

  • Reactions in the arm where the vaccine was given:
  • Soreness (about nine people in 10)
  • Redness or swelling (about one person in 3)
  • Fever:
  • Mild (100 degrees Fahrenheit) (about one person in 10)
  • Moderate (102 degrees Fahrenheit) (about one person in 65)
  • Other problems:
  • A headache (about one person in 3)

Problems that could occur after any injected shot:

  • People sometimes faint after a medical procedure, including immunization. Lying down or sitting for about 15 minutes can help avert fainting, and injuries caused by a fall. Do tell your doctor if you feel dizzy, or have ringing in the ears or vision changes.
  • Some people get serious pain in the shoulder and have trouble moving the arm where the vaccine was given. These happen extremely rare.
  • Any medicine can cause a serious allergic reaction. Such reactions from a shot are very rare, estimated at around one million doses, and would occur within a couple of minutes to a couple of hours after the vaccination.

Like all vaccines, HPV shots will continue to be monitored for severe or uncommon problems.

This information is found on the HPV-Gardasil-9 VIS.

HPV-Gardasil Vaccine

(Human Papillomavirus Gardasil Shot)

What are the benefits of HPV-Gardasil vaccine?

The HPV shot you are getting is one of the two vaccine that can be given to fend off HPV. It may be given to both females and males.

This vaccine can avert most cases of cervical cancer in women if it is given before exposure to the virus. Also, it can fend off vaginal and vulvar cancer in females, and anal cancer and genital warts in both man and women.

Protection from HPV shot is expected to be long-lasting. But Immunization is not a substitute for cervical cancer screening. Females should still get regular Pap tests.

What are the side-effects from HPV-Gardasil vaccine?

The HPV-Gardasil shot has been used in the United States and around the world for around six years and has been safe.

However, any medication could possibly cause a serious problem, like a severe allergic reaction. The risk of any shot causing serious harm, or death, is minuscule.

Life-threatening allergic reactions from vaccines are very, very rare. If they do happen, it would be within a couple of minutes to a couple of hours after the immunization.

Few mild to moderate problems are known to happen with this HPV shot. These do not last long and vanish on their own.

  • Reactions in the arm where the vaccine was given:
  • Pain (about eight people in 10)
  • Redness or swelling (about one person in 4)
  • Fever:
  • Mild (100 degrees Fahrenheit) (about one person in 10)
  • Moderate (102 degrees Fahrenheit) (about one person in 65)
  • Other problems
  • A headache (about one person in 3)
  • Brief fainting and related symptoms (such as jerking movements) can occur after any medical procedure, including immunization. Laying down or sitting for about 15 minutes after the vaccination can help avert fainting and injuries caused by falls. Do tell your doctor if the patient feels light-headed or dizzy, or has ringing in the ears or vision changes.

Like all vaccines, HPV shots will continue to be monitored for severe or unusual problems.

This information is based on the HPV-Gardasil VIS.

Influenza (Inactivated) Vaccine

What are the benefits of inactivated influenza shot?

Influenza (“flu”) is a contagious illness that spreads around the United States each year, usually between October and May.

Influenza viruses cause the flu and is spread mainly by sneezing, coughing, and close contact.

Anyone can catch the flu. Flu strikes suddenly and can last a couple of days. Symptoms vary by age, but can include:

  • Sore throat
  • Fever/chills
  • Muscle aches
  • Fatigue
  • Cough
  • A headache
  • Runny or stuffy nose

Influenza can also lead to blood infections and pneumonia, and cause seizures and diarrhea in children. If you have a medical condition, like a heart or lung disease, influenza can make it worse.

Flu is more dangerous for some people. Babies and young children, pregnant women, people 65 years of age and older, and people with certain health problems or a weakened immune system are at highest risk.

Each year thousands of people in the U.S. die from flu, and much more are hospitalized.

Flu vaccine can:

  • Keep you from catching flu,
  • Make flu less severe if you do catch it, and
  • Keep you from spreading flu to your close ones and other people.

What are the side-effects from inactivated influenza shot?

With a vaccine, like any medication, there is a possibility of side effects. These are usually mild and vanish on their own.

Problems that could happen after any vaccine:

  • Brief fainting intervals can occur after any medical procedure, including immunization. Laying down or sitting for about 15 minutes can help avert fainting, and injuries caused by a fall. Do tell your doctor if you feel dizzy, or have ringing in the ears or vision changes.
  • Severe shoulder pain and reduced range of movement in the arm where the shot was given can occur, very rarely, after immunization.
  • Severe allergic reactions from a shot are very rare, estimated at less than one in a million doses. If one were to happen, it would usually be within a couple of minutes to a couple of hours after the shot.

Mild problems following inactivated flu vaccine:

  • Redness, soreness, or swelling where the shot was given
  • Sore, red or itchy eyes
  • Hoarseness
  • Cough
  • Fever
  • aches
  • Headache
  • Fatigue
  • Itching

If these problems happen, they usually begin soon after the shot was given and last one or two days.

Moderate problems following inactivated flu shot:

  • Young children who get inactivated influenza vaccine and pneumococcal shot (PCV13) at the same time may be at increased endanger for seizures caused by fever. Do ask your doctor for more information. Tell the doctor if a child who is getting influenza vaccine has ever had a seizure.

Inactivated influenza vaccine does not contain live influenza virus , so you can not get the flu from this vaccine.

As with any medication, there is a very remote chance of a shot causing serious harm or death.

The safety of immunizations is always being monitored. For more info, visit: Vaccine Safety Activities and Vaccine Safety Monitoring.

One brand of inactivated influenza vaccine, called Afluria, should not be given to kids eight years of age or younger, except in particular circumstances. A related vaccine was linked with fevers and fever-related seizures in young kids in Australia. Your doctor can give you more info.

This information is found on the Inactivated Influenza VIS.

Influenza (Live) Vaccine

What are the side effects from LAIV?

With any vaccine, like any medication, there is a possibility of side-effects. These are usually mild and vanish on their own.

Problems that could occur after any vaccine:

  • Severe allergic reactions from a shot are very rare, estimated at less than one in a million doses. If one were to happen, it would usually be within a couple of minutes to a couple of hours after the immunization.

Mild problems that have been reported following influenza (live) vaccine:

Children and teenagers 2-17 years of age:

  • Fever
  • A runny nose, nasal congestion or a cough
  • Muscle aches and headache
  • Wheezing
  • Abdominal pain or occasional diarrhea or vomiting

Adults 18-49 years of age:

  • Sore throat
  • A runny nose or nasal congestion
  • Headache
  • A cough, chills, tiredness/weakness

Influenza (live) vaccine is made from weakened virus and does not cause influenza.

As with any medication, there is a very remote chance of a shot causing serious harm or death.

The safety of immunizations is always being monitored. For more info, visit: Vaccine Safety Activities and Vaccine Safety Monitoring.

This information is found on the LAIV VIS.

JE-IXIARO Vaccine

(Japanese Encephalitis – IXIARO)

What are the benefits of Japanese encephalitis shot?

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a severe infection caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus.

  • It happens mainly in rural parts of Asia.
  • It is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. And it does not spread from a person to person.
  • The risk is very low for many travelers. It is higher for persons living in areas where the illness is common, or for people traveling there for extended periods of time.
  • Most people infected with Japanese encephalitis virus do not have any symptoms. Other might have mild symptoms such as a fever and a headache, or encephalitis (brain infection).
  • An individual with encephalitis can experience stiffness, seizures, fever, and coma. About one person in 4 with encephalitis dies. About half of those who do not die have permanent disability.
  • It is supposed that infection in an expectant woman could harm her unborn child.

JE vaccine can help protect travelers from Japanese encephalitis disease.

What are the side-effects from Japanese encephalitis shot?

With a vaccine, like any medication, there is a possibility of side effects. When side effects occur, they are usually mild and vanish on their own.

Mild Problems

  • Fever (mainly in children)
  • Pain, redness, tenderness, or swelling where the shot was given (about one person in 4)
  • Muscle aches, headache (mostly in adults)

Moderate or Severe Problems

Studies have shown that serious reactions to JE vaccine are extremely rare.

Problems that can occur after any vaccine

  • Brief fainting intervals can happen after any medical procedure, including immunization. Laying down or sitting for about 15 minutes can help avert fainting, and injuries caused by a fall. Do tell your doctor if you feel dizzy, or have ringing in the ears or vision changes.
  • Lasting shoulder pain and reduced range of movement in the arm where the vaccine was given can occur, very rarely, after a shot.
  • Severe allergic reactions from a shot are very rare, estimated at less than one in a million doses. If one were to happen, it would usually be within a couple of minutes to a couple of hours after the immunization.

This information is found on the JE-Ixiaro VIS.

MMR Vaccine

(Measles, Mumps, and Rubella) vaccine

What are the benefits of MMR shot?

Measles, Mumps, and Rubella are serious illnesses. Before immunizations, they were very common, especially among kids.

Measles

  • Measles virus causes a cough, rash, eye irritation, runny nose, and fever.
  • It can result in ear infection, seizures (jerking and staring), pneumonia, brain damage, and even death.

Mumps

  • Mumps virus causes a headache, muscle pain, swollen glands, loss of appetite, and fever.
  • It can result in meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord covering), deafness, painful swelling of the ovaries or testicles, and rarely sterility.

Rubella (German Measles)

  • Rubella virus causes mild fever, rash, and arthritis (mostly in women).
  • If a woman gets rubella while she is expectant, she could have a stillbirth or her child would be born with severe birth defects.

These diseases spread from a person to person through the air. You can easily get them by being around a person who is already infected.

MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine can protect kids (and adults) from all three of these illnesses.

Thanks to successful immunization programs these diseases are much less common in the United States than they used to be. But if

What are the risks from MMR shot?

A vaccine, like any medication, is capable of causing serious problems, like severe allergic reactions.

The risk of MMR shot causing serious harm, or death, is minuscule.

Getting MMR shot is much safer than catching measles, mumps or rubella.

Most people who get MMR shot do not have any serious problems.

Mild Problems

  • Fever (up to one person out of 6)
  • Mild rash (about one person out of 20)
  • Swelling of glands in the neck or cheek (about one person out of 75)

If these problems happen, it is usually within 7-12 days after the vaccine. They occur less often after the second shot.

Moderate Problems

  • Temporary pain and stiffness in the joints, mainly in teenage or adult women (up to one out of 4)
  • Seizure (starring or jerking) caused by fever (about one person out of 3,000 doses)
  • Temporary low platelet count, which can lead to bleeding disorder (about one out of 30,000 doses)

Severe Problems (Very Rare)

  • Severe allergic reaction (less than one out of a million doses)
  • Few other serious problems have been reported after a kid gets MMR vaccine, including:
  • Long-term seizures, coma, or lowered consciousness
  • Permanent brain damage
  • Deafness

These are so rare that it is difficult to tell whether the shot causes them.

This information is found on the MMR VIS.

MMRV Vaccine

(Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella) vaccine

what are the benefits of MMRV shot?

Measles

  • Causes cough, runny nose, rash, eye irritation, fever.
  • Can result in ear infection, seizures, pneumonia, brain damage, and death

Mumps

  • Causes a headache, swollen glands, and fever.
  • Can lead to meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord covering), deafness, painful swelling of the testicles or ovaries, infection of the pancreas, and, rarely, death.

Rubella (German Measles)

  • Causes mild fever and rash; and can cause arthritis, (mainly in women).
  • If a woman catches rubella while she is pregnant, she could have a stillbirth or her baby could be born with severe birth defects.

Varicella (Chickenpox)

  • Causes fever, rash, itching, tiredness.
  • Can lead to severe skin infection, pneumonia, scars, brain damage, or death.
  • Can emerge again years later as a painful rash called shingles.

These illnesses can spread from a person to person through the air. Varicella can be spread through contact with liquid from chickenpox blisters.

Before immunization, these illnesses were very common in the United States.

What are the side-effects from MMRV shot?

A vaccine, like any medication, is capable of causing serious problems, like a severe allergic reactions. The risk of MMRV shot causing serious harm, or death, is minuscule.

Getting MMRV vaccine is much safer than catching measles, mumps, rubella, or varicella.

Most children who get MMRV shot do not have any problems.

Mild Problems

  • Fever (about one child out of 5)
  • Mild rash (about one child out of 20)
  • Swelling of glands in the neck or cheeks (rare)

If these problems occur, it is usually within 5-12 days after the first shot. They happen less often after the second shot.

Moderate Problems

  • A seizure caused by fever (about one child in 1,25 who get MMRV), typically 5-12 days after the first shot. They happen less often when MMR and chickenpox vaccines are given at the same visit as parted shots (about one child in 2,500 who get these two immunizations), and rarely after the second dose of MMRV.
  • Temporary low platelet count, which can lead to a bleeding disorder (about one child out of 40,000)

Severe Problems (Very Rare)

Several serious problems have been reported following MMR shot, and might also occur after MMRV. These include severe allergic reactions (less than four per million), and problems such as:

  • Long-term seizures, coma, lowered consciousness
  • Deafness
  • Permanenet brain damage

Because these problems happen so rarely, we cannot be sure whether the vaccine causes them.

This information is found on the MMRV VIS.

Meningococcal ACWY Vaccine

What are the benefits of meningococcal vaccine?

Meningococcal illness is a serious disease caused by a type of bacteria that is called Neisseria meningitides. It can lead to meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord covering) and infections of the blood. Meningococcal disease often happens without warning – even among people who are apart from that healthy.

Meningococcal disease can spread from a person to person through close contact (kissing or coughing) or lengthy contact, especially among persons living in the same household.

There are at least twelve types of Neisseria meningitides, called “serogroups.” Serogroups A, C, W, Y, and B cause most meningococcal disease.

Anyone can get meningococcal illness but certain people are at highest risk, including:

  • Babies younger than one year old
  • Teenagers and young adults 16 through 23 years old
  • Persons with specific medical conditions that affect the immune system
  • People at risk because of an outbreak in the community they live
  • Microbiologists who routinely work with isolates of Neisseria meningitides

Even when it is treated, meningococcal illness kills ten to 15 infected people out of a hundred. And of those who survive, about 10 to 20 of every 100 will undergo disabilities such as brain damage, kidney damage, nervous system problems, hearing loss, amputations, or severe scars from skin grafts.

Meningococcal ACWY immunizations can help prevent meningococcal illness caused by serogroups A, C, W, and Y. There is a different meningococcal vaccine available to help protect against serogroup B.

What are the side-effects from meningococcal vaccines?

With any medication, including vaccines, there is a possibility of side effects. These are usually mild and vanish on their own within a couple of days, but severe reactions are also possible.

As many as half of the persons who get meningococcal ACWY shot have mild problems following immunization, such as soreness or redness where the shot was given. If these problems happen, they usually last for one or two days. They are more common after Meningococcal-ACWY than after MPSV4.

A small percentage of persons who receive the shot develop a mild fever.

Problems that could occur after any injected shot:

  • People sometimes faint after a medical procedure, including immunization. Laying down or sitting for about 15 minutes can help avert fainting, and injuries caused by a fall. Do tell your doctor if you feel dizzy, or have ringing in the ears or vision changes.
  • Some people get serious pain in the shoulder and have trouble moving the arm where a shot was given. This occurs very rarely.
  • Any medicine can cause severe allergic reactions. Like reactions from a shot are very rare, estimated at one in a million doses, and would happen within a couple of minutes to a couple of hours after the immunization.

As with any medication, there is a very remote chance of a shot causing serious harm or death.

This information is found on the Meningococcal ACWY VIS.

PCV13 Vaccine Side-Effects

What are the side-effects from PCV13?

With any medication, including vaccines, there is a possibility of side effects. These are usually mild and vanish on their own, but severe reactions are also possible.

Reported problems linked with PCV13 vary by dose and age, but usually:

  • About half of children became drowsy after the vaccine, had a temporary loss of appetite, or had tenderness or redness where the shot was given.
  • About one out of 3 had swelling where the vaccine was given.
  • About one out of 3 had a mild fever, and about one in 20 had a higher fever (over 102 Fahrenheit degrees).
  • Up to about eight out of 10 became fussy or irritable.

Adults getting the shot have reported pain, swelling, and redness where the shot was given. Mild fever, headache, chills, muscle pain, or fatigue have also been reported.

Life-threatening allergic reactions from any shot are very rare.

This information is found on the PCV VIS.

PPSV23 Vaccine

(Pneumococcal Polysaccharide)

What are the benefits of PPSV?

Immunization can protect both children and adults from pneumococcal illness.

Pneumococcal illness is caused by bacteria that can spread from a person to person through close contact. It can result in ear infections, and it can also lead to more severe infections of the:

  • Blood (bacteremia),
  • Lungs (pneumonia), and
  • Lining of the brain and spinal cord covering (meningitis).

Pneumococcal pneumonia is most common among grown-ups. Pneumococcal meningitis can cause brain damage and deafness, and it kills about one child in 10 who get it.

Anyone can catch pneumococcal disease, but children under two years of age and grown-ups 65 years and older, people with particular medical conditions, and tobacco smokers are at the greatest risk.

Before there was a vaccine, the U.S. saw:

  • More than 700 cases of meningitis,
  • Around 13,000 blood infections,
  • Around 5 million ear infections, and
  • Around 200 deaths

in children under five years of age each year from pneumococcal illness. Since vaccine became available, severe pneumococcal illness in these children has fallen by 88%.

Around 18,000 older adults die of pneumococcal disease every year in the U.S.

Treatment of pneumococcal infections with penicillin and other medications is not as efficient as it used to be, as some strains of the illness have become resistant to these medications. This makes prevention of the disease, through immunization, even more important.

PCV13 protects against 13 types of pneumococcal bacteria.

Pneumococcal conjugate is routinely given to kids at 2, 4, 6, and 12-15 months of age. Also, it is recommended for children and grown-ups 2 to 64 years of age with particular health conditions, and for all adults 64 years of age and older. Your health care provider can give you details.

What are the side-effects from PPSV?

With any medication, including vaccines, there is a possibility of side effects. These are usually mild and vanish on their own, but severe reactions are also possible.

About half of the persons who get PPSV have mild side effects, like redness or pain where the vaccine was given, which vanish within about two days.

Less than one out of 100 people develop a fever, more severe local reactions, or muscle aches.

Problems that could happen after any shot:

  • People sometimes faint after a medical procedure, including immunization. Lying down or sitting for about 15 minutes can help avert fainting, and injuries caused by a fall. Do tell your doctor if you feel dizzy, or have ringing in the ears or vision changes.
  • Some people get more severe pain in the shoulder and have trouble moving the arm where the shot was given. This happens very rarely.
  • Any medicine can cause a severe allergic reaction. Such results from a shot a very rare, estimated at around one in a million doses, and would happen within a couple of minutes to a couple of hours after the vaccination.

As with any medication, there is a very remote chance of a shot causing serious harm or death.

This information is found on the PPSV VIS.

Polio Vaccine

What is polio?

Polio is an illness caused by a virus. It goes into the body through the mouth. Typically it does not cause severe illness. But sometimes it causes paralysis (cannot move leg or arm), and it can cause meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord covering). It can kill people who get it, typically by paralyzing the muscles that help them breathe.

In the United States, polio used to be very common. It paralyzed and killed thousands of people per year before there was a vaccine.

What are the benefits of IPV?

IPV (Inactivated Polio Vaccine) can prevent polio disease.

History: A 1916 polio epidemic in the U.S. killed 6,000 people and paralyzed 27,000. In the early ‘50s there were more than 25,000 victims of polio reported each year. Polio immunization was begun in ’55. By 1960 the number of reported victims has dropped to around 3,000, and by 1979 there were only around 10. The success of polio immunization in the United States and other countries has sparked a world-wide endeavor to eliminate polio.

Today: polio has been removed from the United States. But the illness is still common in some parts of the earth. It would only take one individual infected with polio disease coming from another country to bring the illness back here if we were not protected by immunization. If the endeavor to eliminate the illness from the world is successful, some day we will not need polio vaccine. Until then, we have to keep getting our children vaccinated.

What are the side-effects from IPV?

Some people who get IPV (Inactivated Polio Vaccine) get a sore spot where the vaccine was given. The shot used today has never been known to cause any severe problems, and most people do not have any problems at all.

However, a vaccine, like any medication, could cause serious problems, like a severe allergic reaction or even death. The risk of an IPV vaccine causing serious harm is minuscule.

This information is found on the IPV VIS.

Rabies Vaccine

What is rabies?

Rabies is a serious illness. It is caused by a virus.

Rabies is basically a disease of animals. People get rabies when they are bitten by an infected animal.

At first there might not be any signs and symptoms. But weeks, or even months after the bite, rabies can cause pain, fatigue, headaches, irritability, and fever. These are followed by hallucinations, seizures, and paralysis. Human rabies is almost always deadly.

Wild animals – especially bats – are the most common origin of human rabies infection in the United States.

Raccoons, skunks, dogs, cats, foxes, coyotes and other mammals can also transmit the illness.

Human rabies is rare in the U.S. there have been only 55 instances diagnosed since 1990.

However, between 16,000 and 40,000 people are vaccinated every year as a precaution after animal bites. Rabies is far more frequent in other parts of the world, with around 40,000 – 70,000 rabies-related deaths worldwide every year. Bites from unvaccinated dogs cause most of the cases.

Rabies vaccine can prevent rabies.

Rabies vaccine is given to people at great risk of rabies to preserve them if they are exposed. It can also fend off the disease if it is given to an individual after they have been exposed.

Rabies shot is made from killed rabies disease. It cannot cause rabies.

What are the side-effects from rabies vaccine?

A vaccine, like any medication, is capable of causing serious problems, like a severe allergic reaction. The risk of a shot causing serious harm, or death, is minuscule. Serious problems from rabies shot are very rare.

Mild Problems

  • Redness, swelling, soreness, or itching where the vaccine was given (30% – 74%)
  • A headache, nausea, dizziness, muscle aches, abdominal pain (5% – 40%)

Moderate Problems

  • Hives, fever, pain in the joints (about 6% of booster doses)

Other nervous system disorders, like GBS (Guillain-Barre syndrome), have been reported after rabies vaccine, but this occurs so rarely that it is not known if they are related to the shot.

Note: A couple of brands of rabies vaccine are available in the U.S., and reactions may vary between brands. Your health care provider can give you more info about a particular brand.

This information is found on the Rabies VIS.

Rotavirus Vaccine

What are the benefits of rotavirus vaccine?

Rotavirus is a virus that causes diarrhea, mainly in babies and young kids. The diarrhea can be severe, and result in dehydration. Fever and vomiting are also common in infants with rotavirus.

Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus illness was a common and serious health problem for kids in the United States. Almost all children in the U.S. had at least one rotavirus infection before their fifth birthday.

Every year before the shot was available:

  • More than 400,000 young kids had to see a doctor for disease cause by rotavirus,
  • More than 200,000 children had to go to the emergency,
  • 55,000 to 70,000 had to be hospitalized,
  • 20 to 60 died.

Since the introduction of the rotavirus shot, emergency visits and hospitalizations for rotavirus have dropped dramatically.

What are the side-effects from rotavirus vaccine?

With any vaccine, like any medication, there is a possibility of side effects. These are usually mild and vanish on their own. Severe side effects are also possible but are very rare.

Most babies who get rotavirus shot do not have any problems. But some problems have been linked to rotavirus shot:

Mild problems following rotavirus vaccine:

  • Babies may become irritable, or temporary, mild diarrhea or vomiting after getting the rotavirus shot.

Serious problems following rotavirus shot:

  • Intussusception is a type of bowel blockage that is dealt with in a hospital, and could require surgery. It happens “naturally” in some infants every year in the U.S., and typically there is no known reason for it.

There is also a small risk intussusception from rotavirus immunization, usually within a week after the first or second vaccine dose. This additional endanger is estimated to range from about one in 20,000 to one in 100,000 U.S. infants who get rotavirus shot. Your doctor can give you more info.

Problems that could happen after any vaccine:

  • Any medicine can cause severe allergic reactions. Such reactions from a vaccine are very very rare, estimated at fewer than one in a million doses, and usually occur within a couple of minutes to a couple of hours after the immunization.

As with any medication, there is a very remote chance of a vaccine causing serious harm or death.

This information is found on the Rotavirus VIS.

Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Vaccine

What is shingles?

Shingles is a painful rash on the skin, often with blisters. It is also called Zoster, or Herpes Zoster.

A shingles rash typically appears on one side of the face or the body and lasts from 2 to 4 weeks. The main symptom is pain, which can be pretty severe. Other symptoms of shingles can include fever, a headache, chills and upset stomach. A shingles infection can, very rarely, lead to pneumonia, blindness, hearing problems, encephalitis (brain inflammation) or death.

For about one person in 5, severe pain can continue long after the rash cleans up. It is called post-herpetic neuralgia.

Shingles rash is caused by the Varicella Zoster virus, the very same virus that causes chickenpox.

Only a person who has had chickenpox – or, very rarely, has gotten chickenpox shot – can get shingles. The virus stays in the body, and can cause shingles rash many years later.

You cannot catch shingles from another person who has shingles. However, an individual who has never had chickenpox (or chickenpox shot) could catch chickenpox from someone with shingles. This is very rare.

Shingles is far more common in persons 50 years of age and older than in people who are younger. It is also more common in persons whose immune systems are weak because of a disease like cancer, or drugs like steroids or chemotherapy.

At least one million people a year in the U.S. get shingles.

A vaccine for shingles was licensed in 2006. The vaccine reduced the risk of shingles rash by 50%, in clinical trials. It can also reduce the pain in persons who still get shingles after being immunized.

A single dose of shingles shot is recommended for grown-ups 60 years of age and older.

What are the side-effects from shingles vaccine?

A vaccine, like any medication, could cause serious problems, like a severe allergic reaction. However, the endanger of a vaccine causing severe harm, or death, is minuscule.

No serious problems have been found with shingles vaccine.

Mild Problems

  • Soreness, redness, or itching at the place of the injection (about one person in 3).
  • A headache (about one person in 70).

Like all vaccines, shingles shot is being closely monitored for severe or unusual problems.

This information is found on the Shingles VIS.

Smallpox (Vaccinia) Vaccine Side-Effects

This medicine guide replaces the Smallpox VIS. It’s to be used before one gets the immunization. Medical Guide for vaccination with ACAM2000

Td Vaccine

(Adult Tetanus & Diphtheria)

What are the benefits of Td vaccine?

Tetanus and diphtheria are very serious illnesses. They are rare in the U.S. today, but persons who do become infected often have serious compications. Td vaccine is used to protect teenagers and adults from both of these illnesses.

Both tetanus and diphtheria are infections caused by bacteria. Diphtheria spreads from a person to person through secretions from sneezing or coughing. Tetanus-causing bacteria enters the body through cuts, wounds, or scratches.

TETANUS (Lockjaw) causes painful muscle tightening and stiffness, typically all over the body.

  • It can result in tightening of the muscles in the head and neck so you cannot open your mouth, swallow, or even breathe. Tetanus kills about one out of every 10 persons who are infected even after getting the best medical care.

DIPHTHERIA can cause a thick coating to create in the back of the throat.

  • It can result in breathing problems, paralysis, heart failure, and death.

Before immunizations, as many as 200,000 instances of diphtheria and hundreds of instances of tetanus were reported in the United states every year. Since vaccination began, reports of instances for both diseases have dropped by around 99%.

Td vaccine can protect teenagers and adults from diphtheria and tetanus. Td is typically given as a booster dose every ten years but it can also be given promt after a severe and dirty wound.

Another vaccine, called Tdap, which protects against pertussis (whooping cough) in addition to diphtheria and tetanus, is sometimes recommended instead of Td vaccine.

Your health care provider or the person giving you the immunization can give you more information.

Td can safely be given at the same visit as other vaccines.

What are the side-effects from Td vaccine?

With any medication, including vaccines, there is a possibility of side effects. These are usually mild and vanish on their own. Severe reactions are also possible but are very rare.

Most people who get Td shot do not have any problems.

Mild Problems

(Did not interfere with activities)

  • Pain where the vaccine was given (about eight people in 10)
  • Redness or swelling where the vaccine was given (about one person in 4)
  • Mild fever (rare)
  • A headache (about one person in 4)
  • Tiredness (about one person in 4)

Moderate Problems

(Interfered with activities, but did not need medical attention)

  • Fever over 102 degrees Fahrenheit (rare)

Severe Problems

(Unable to perform usual activities; need medical attention)

  • Severe pain, swelling, redness or bleeding in the arm where the shot was given (very rare)

Problems that could occur after any shot:

  • Sometimes people faint after a medical procedure, including immunization. Laying down or sitting for about 15 minutes can help avert fainting, and injuries caused by a fall. Do tell your doctor if you feel dizzy, or have ringing in the ears or vision changes.
  • Some people get serious pain in the shoulder and have trouble moving the arm where the vaccine was given. This occurs very rarely.
  • Any medicine can cause severe allergic reactions. Such reactions from a shot are very rare, estimated at fewer than one in a million doses, and would occur within a couple of minutes to a couple of hours after the immunization.

This information is found on the Td VIS.

Tdap Vaccine

(Combined Tetanus, Diphtheria & Pertussis) shot

What are the benefits of Tdap vaccine?

Tdap vaccine can protect teenagers and adults from teteanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough). One dose of Tdap is routinely given to adolescents at age 11 or 12. Persons who did not get Tdap vaccine at that age should get it as soon as possible.

Tdap vaccine is especially important for health care professionals and any person having close contact with an infant younger than 12 months.

Pregnant women should also get a dose of Tdap during every pregnancy, in order to protect the newborn from pertussis (whooping cough). Infants are most at risk for serious, life-threatening complications from whooping cough.

Another vaccine, called Td, protects against diphtheria and tetanus, but not pertussis (whooping cough). A Td booster should be given every ten years. Tdap can be given after a severe cut to prevent tetanus infection.

Your health care provider or the person giving you the shot can give you more information.

Tdap can safely be given at the same visit as other vaccines.

What are the side-effects from Tdap vaccine?

With any medication, including vaccines, there is a possibility of side effects. These are usually mild and vanish on their own. Severe reactions are also possible but are very rare.

Most people who get Tdap vaccine do not have any problems.

Mild Problems

(Did not interfere with activities)

  • Pain where the vaccine was given (about three in 4 teenagers or two in 3 adults)
  • Redness or swelling where the vaccine was given (about one person in 5)
  • Mild fever of al least 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit (up to about one in 25 teenagers or one in 100 adults)
  • A headache (about three or four people in 10)
  • Tiredness (about one person in 3)
  • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach ache (up to one in 4 adolescents or one in 10 adults)
  • Chills, sore joints (about one person in 10)
  • Body aches (about one person in 3)
  • Rash, swollen glands (rare)

Mild Problems

(interfered  with activities, but did not need medical attention)

  • Pain where the vaccine was given (up to one in 5)
  • Redness or swelling where the vaccine was given (up to about one in 16 teenagers or one in 12 adults)
  • Fever over 120 degrees Fahrenheit (about one in 100 teenagers or one in 250 adults)
  • A headache (about one in 7 teenagers or one in 10 adults)
  • Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach ache (up to one or three people in 100)
  • Swelling of entire arm where the vaccine was given (up to about one in 500)

Severe Problems

(Unable to perform usual activities; need medical attention)

  • Swelling, severe pain, redness, and bleeding in the arm where the vaccine was given (rare)

Problems that could occur after any shot:

  • People sometimes faint after a medical procedure, including immunization. Laying down or sitting for about 15 minutes can help avert fainting and injuries caused by a fall. Do tell your doctor if you feel dizzy, or have ringing in the ears or vision changes.
  • Some people get serious pain in the shoulder and have trouble moving the arm where the shot was given. This happens very rarely.
  • Any medicine can cause severe allergic reactions. Such reactions from a shot are very rare, estimated at fewer than one in a million doses, and would occur within a couple of minutes to a couple of hours after the immunization.

As with any medication, there is a very remote chance of a shot causing serious harm or death.

This information is found on the Tdap VIS.

Typhoid Vaccine

What are the benefits of typhoid vaccine?

Typhoid (typhoid fever) is a serious illness. It is caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi.

Typhoid disease causes a high fever, a headache, weakness, loss of appetite, stomach pains, and sometimes a rash. If it’s not treated it can end the life of up to 30% of persons who get it.

Some people who catch typhoid become “carries,” who can transmit the disease to others.

Generally, persons who get typhoid from contaminated water or food. Typhoid is rare in the United States, and most U.S. citizens who catch the illness get it while traveling.

Typhoid strikes around 21 million people per year around the world and kills around 200,000.

Typhoid vaccine can prevent typhoid.

There are two immunizations to prevent typhoid. The first is an inactivated (killed) vaccine taken as a shot. The second is a live, attenuated (weakened) vaccine which is gotten orally (by mouth).

What are the side-effects from typhoid vaccine?

Like any medication, a vaccine could cause a serious problem, like severe allergic reactions. The risk of typhoid vaccine causing severe harm, or death, is minuscule. Serious problems from either typhoid shot are very rare.

Inactivated Typhoid Vaccine (jab)

Mild Reactions

  • Fever (up to about one person per 100)
  • A headache (up to about one person in 30)
  • Redness or swelling at the place of the injection (up to about one person in 15)

Live Typhoid Vaccine (Oral)

Mild Reactions

  • Fever or a headache (up to about one person in 20)
  • Stomach pain, vomiting, nausea, rash (rare)

This information is found on the Typhoid VIS.

Varicella (Chickenpox) Vaccine

What are the benefits of chickenpox vaccine?

Chickenpox (also called varicella) is a common childhood illness. It is usually mild, but it can be severe, especially in young babies and adults.

  • It causes a rash, fever, itching, and tiredness.
  • It can result in severe skin infections, pneumonia, scars, brain damage, or death.
  • The chickenpox illness can be spread from a person to person through the air, or maybe by contact with fluid from chickenpox blisters.
  • An individual who has had varicella can get a very painful rash called shingles years after.
  • Before the vaccine, around 11,000 people were hospitalized for chickenpox every year in the United States.
  • Before the vaccine, around 100 people died every year as a result of varicella in the United States.

Varicella vaccine can prevent chickenpox.

Most people who get varicella vaccine will not get chickenpox. But if a person who has been immunized does get chickenpox, it is typically very mild. They will have less blisters, are less probable to have a fever, and will recover faster.

What are side-effects from chickenpox vaccine?

A vaccine, like any medication, is capable of causing serious problems, like a severe allergic reaction. The risk of chickenpox vaccine causing severe harm, or death, is minuscule.

  • Getting chickenpox vaccine is much safer than catching chickenpox disease. Most people who get chickenpox shot do not have any problems. Reactions are usually more likely after the first shot than after the second.

Mild Problems

  • Swelling or soreness where the shot was given (about one out of 5 children and up to one out of 3 teenagers and adults)
  • Fever (one person out of ten, or less)
  • Mild rash, up to a month after immunization (one person out of 25). It’s possible for these persons to infect other members of their occupants, but this is very very rare.

Note: the first dose of MMRV shot has been associated with rash and higher degrees of fever than MMR and varicella shots given separately. Rash has been reported in about one person in 20 and fever in about one person in 5. Seizures caused provoked by a fever are also reported more frequent after MMRV. These usually happen 5-12 days after the first shot.

Moderate Problems

  • Seizure (jerking or staring) provoked by fever (very rare)

Severe Problems

  • Pneumonia (very rare)

Other severe problems, including serious brain reactions and low blood count, have been announced after chickenpox vaccination. These occur so rarely experts can not tell whether they are caused by the vaccine. If they are, it is very very rare.

This information is found on the Varicella VIS.

Yellow Fever Vaccine

What is yellow fever?

Yellow fever is a severe disease caused by the yellow fever illness. It is found in particular parts of Africa and South America.

Yellow fever disease is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. It can’t be spread from a person to person by direct contact.

Persons with yellow fever disease typically have to be hospitalized. Yellow fever illness can cause:

  • Jaundice (yellow skin or eyes)
  • Fever and flu-like symptoms
  • Liver, kidney, respiratory, and other organ failure
  • Bleeding from multiple body sites
  • Death (20% – 50% of serious cases)

What are the benefits of yellow fever vaccine?

Yellow fever vaccine can avert yellow fever.

Yellow fever shot is given only at designated immunization centers.

After getting the shot, you should be given a stamped and signed yellow card (“International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis”). This certificate becomes valid ten days after immunization and is good for ten years.

You will need this card as evidence of vaccination to enter particular countries. Travelers without evidence of vaccination could be given the shot upon entry or detained for up to six days to make sure they are not infected.

Talk about your itinerary with your health care provider before you get your yellow fever immunization. Consult your health department or visit the CDC’s travel information website to learn yellow fever shot requirements and recommendation for different countries.

What are the side-effects from Yellow Fever vaccine?

A vaccine, like any medication, could cause a severe reaction. But the risk of a shot causing serious harm, or death, is minuscule.

Mild Problems

Yellow fever vaccine has been linked with fever, and with aches, redness, soreness or swelling where the vaccine was given.

These problems happen in up to one person out of 4. They typically begin soon after the jab, and can last up to a week.

Severe Problems

  • Serious allergic reaction to a vaccine component (about one person in 55.000)
  • Severe nervous system reaction (about one person in 125,000)
  • Life-threatening severe disease with organ failure (about one person in 250,000). More than half the persons who suffer this side-effect die.

these last two problems have never been announced after a booster dose.

This information is found on the Yellow Fever VIS.

What if there is a severe or moderate reaction?

What should I look for?

  • Any unusual condition, like strange behavior or a high fever. Signs of a severe allergic reaction can include difficulty in breathing, hoarseness or wheezing, paleness, hives, weakness, dizziness or a fast heartbeat.

What should I do?

  • Call a doctor, or better get the person to a doctor.
  • Tell the doctor what happened, the date and time it occurred, and when the immunization was given.
  • Ask the doctor, nurse, or the health department to report the reaction by filing a VAERS (Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System) form. Or you can submit this report through the VAERS website at http://www.vaers.hhs.gov, or you can call 1-800-822-7967.
  • VAERS does not provide medical advice.
Spread The Love Mummy